Dysphagia is difficulty swallowing, which can affect any phase of the swallow. The swallow is broken down into phases, including the oral anticipatory, oral pharyngeal and esophageal.
How do I know if I have dysphagia?
Dysphagia symptoms can vary from person to person. You can have one or all symptoms of dysphagia. Some people appear asymptomatic. We typically associate coughing with aspiration (food/drink entering the lungs) however some people silently aspirate (no cough). Some symptoms/indicators of dysphagia include, but are not limited to:
- Weight loss
- Drooling or increased sensation of too much saliva
- Coughing or choking during or after eating
- Pocketing food
- Changes in diet-patient induced
- Complaint of food sticking or “not going down”
- Respiratory changes
**NEVER assume a person does not have dysphagia because they are not coughing**
What should I do if I am having difficulty swallowing?
If you are experiencing any of the symptoms above, you can fill out the self-evaluation for dysphagia. Talk to your physician and request an evaluation from a Speech Language Pathologist.
What is a Modified or Video Fluoroscopic Swallow Study?
A Modified Barium Swallow Study, or Video Fluoroscopic Swallow Study is an exam that is completed in the radiology suite. The Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) in conjunction with the radiologist will give the patient multiple consistencies of food/drinks mixed with barium. While the patient swallows, the SLP and radiologist watches the swallowing structures on the monitor to determine dysfunction of the muscles of swallowing or swallowing structures. The exam is typically recorded for review by the SLP.
Approximately 300,000 to 600,000 people with neurogenic disorders are diagnosed with dysphagia.
Swallowing involves the use of 6 cranial nerves.
Approximately 40% of patients with dysphagia silently aspirate (food goes into the lungs without choking).
Swallowing is one of the most complex body functions, yet in the normal adult, this process is automatic, effortless and efficient, occurring an average of 600 to 1200 times per day.
There is evidence of dysphagia in 51% of patients with acute stroke.
Parkinson’s dysphagia develops in approximately 50% of patients.
Patients with multiple sclerosis, approximately 34% have dysphagia.
Some medications, such as antidepressants can cause dysphagia.
Swallowing is performed for management of secretions and to maintain nutrition and hydration.
What kind of evaluation may the Speech Language Pathologist complete?
- Bedside or clinical assessments of dysphagia include, but are not limited to:
- Cervical Auscultation-using a stethoscope to listen to the sounds of breathing and swallowing to determine swallowing dysfunctions.
- Laryngeal elevation palpation-feeling the larynx for elevation and for hyoid anterior movement during the swallow.
- Monitor for signs or symptoms of aspiration-the SLP will review the patient chart and monitor during swallow trials for any of the signs/symptoms of dysphagia.
- Trial different consistencies-the SLP will present different food and liquid consistencies to test how the patient performs with the differing consistencies and to find which consistency is safest for the patient.
- Pulse oximetry-the SLP may monitor the patient’s oxygen saturation levels to determine if they dip during swallowing, which may indicate aspiration.
- (Pulse oximetry is unreliable in predicting aspiration)
- Heart rate monitoring-the SLP may watch the patient’s heartrate for increase or decrease in rate of heartbeat during the swallow.
- Blue dye assessment-the SLP may add blue food coloring to food and/or liquids of a patient with a trach. If the trach is suctioned and blue is suctioned from the trach, this is an indication that the person is aspirating.
- (Blue dye assessment is rarely used in practice now and has been discontinued by many facilities as it is unreliable).
- Three ounce water test-3 ounces of water is given to the patient, who must then drink all 3 ounces at one time without stopping. This test is completed on a pass/fail basis.
- Bolus manipulation task-this assessment monitors how well a patient manipulates a bolus (bite of food) within the mouth (oral cavity). This can also be done by rotating a tongue depressor on each side of the oral cavity.
- Monitor vocal sounds-after swallows involving different consistencies of food or drink, the SLP will have the patient say “ah”, monitoring for vocal changes after the swallow.
Instrumental Assessments include:
- Modified Barium Swallow Study/Video Fluoroscopic Swallow Study
What kind of therapy is available for dysphagia?
There are several different treatment techniques available for dysphagia therapy. Not all therapists are trained in each technique and some techniques are controversial due to lack of research offered.
Therapeutic Techniques that are evidence-based and have published peer-reviewed research:
- Thermal-tactile stimulation
- Myofascial release and manual techniques
- Lingual exercises with resistance
- Exercises with resistance
- Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES)
- Supraglottic Swallow
- Super-Supraglottic Swallow
- Effortful Swallow
- Back of Tongue Exercises: Yawn, Gargle, Pull tongue straight back
- McNeil Dysphagia Therapy Program (MDTP)
- Expiratory Muscle Strength Training (EMST)
I have been recommended to have thickened liquids. What are the differences?
There are four different liquid consistencies, thin, nectar, honey and pudding.
Thin liquids are regular liquids such as water, tea or milk. They need no preparation.
Nectar thick liquids are the same consistency as syrup. There are naturally nectar thick liquids such as buttermilk, tomato juice and fruit nectars. Other liquids need to have thickener added to increase the viscosity and make them safe for the patient to drink.
Honey thick liquids are the same consistency as honey. There are no naturally honey thick liquids. All liquids need to be prepared with thickener to be safe for the patient to swallow.
Pudding thick liquids are as thick as pudding. They have to be mixed with thickener and have to be spooned to swallow.