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Cognition can impact many facets of life including swallowing. Patients may be confused enough that they don't "recognize" food in their mouth and effectively may not know what to do with that food. For example, when I was working in the acute care hospital, I evaluated a patient in the ICU that had sodium levels [...]
The First Thing.... When I assess a patient with dysphagia, my first plan of attack is to teach the patient about oral care and start an oral care plan with that patient! Aspiration Aspiration is defined as the inhalation of either oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the lower airways, that is, the act of taking [...]
Inspiratory Muscle Strength Training Inspiratory strength training works on the muscles of inspiration the diaphragm, the intercostals. Inspiration involves contractions of the diaphragm and external intercostals, which increase intrathoracic volume and decreased volume in pressure. Respiration is a recoil from inspiration. Exhalation involves relaxation of the inhalation muscles, recruitment of abdominal and internal intercostals to force [...]
Research Research by Dr. Lazarus and Dr. Robbins has focused heavily on lingual strengthening. Many of these research articles have proven to us that lingual strengthening using resistance such as an IOPI does increase not only tongue strength and at times, tongue mass, but also improves the overall swallow. This same research has also shown us that using [...]
Way back in 2014...... Way back in 2014, an article was published describing Chin Tuck Against Resistance. When we look at patients with dysphagia from Pharyngoesophageal Segment (PES) dysfunction, we look at strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. These muscles assist in hyolaryngeal excursion and therefore play a part in esophageal opening. Isokinetic vs. Isometric CTAR vs [...]
The 1998 Paper Leder, Cohn and Moller investigated the incidence of aspiration following extubation in critically ill trauma patients. The study looked at 20 patients who required oropharyngeal intubation for at least 48 hours. All FEES were completed around 24 hours following extubation. Remember, aspiration is when the bolus enters the airway, below the level [...]